who is it? what happened? 3 events what changed/concussion Martin Luther king the President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, which states, “It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.”To be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.”Segregation of the races, ruling that “spear Six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same Woolworth’s counter Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter. The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South. Beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahassee
River for allegedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men, J. W. Milan and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury.
They later boast about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview. The case becomes a cause celebrate of the civil rights movement.Over the spring and summer, student volunteers begin taking bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel facilities, which includes bus and Ra
stations.The Council of Federated Organizations (COHO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SN CC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom The Council of Federated Organizations
(COCO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SYNC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom
stopped at the Iapetus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed “Bloody Sunday” by the media. The march is considered the catalyst for pushing through the voting rights act five months later. paragraph 8
phrase “black power” in a speech in Seattle. He defines it as an assertion of black pride and “the coming together of black people to fight for their liberation by any means necessary.” The term’s radicalism alarms many who believe the civil rights movement’s effectiveness and moral authority crucially depend on nonviolent civil disobedience.
states with a history of discrimination must get clearance from Congress before changing voting rules to make sure racial minorities are not negatively affected. While the 5–4 decision did not invalidate Section 5, it made it toothless. Chief Justice John Roberts said the formula Congress now uses, which was written in 1965, has become outdated. “While any racial discrimination in voting is too much, Congress must ensure that the legislation it passe.
exams were thrown out when it was determined that few minority firefighters qualified for advancement. The city claimed they threw out the results because they feared liability under a disparate-impact statute for issuing tests that discriminated against minority firefighters. The plaintiffs claimed that they were victims of reverse discrimination under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Supreme Court ruled (5–4) in favor of the firefighters, saying New Haven’s “action in discarding the tests was a violation of Title VII.”
upholds the University of Michigan Law School’s policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers “a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body.”
legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools. Although largely unwelcome (and sometimes violently opposed) in local school district’s, court-ordered busing plans in cities such as Charlotte, Boston, and Denver continue until the late 1990s.
During civil rights protests in Birmingham, Ala., Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Conner uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators. These images of brutality, which are televised and published widely, are instrumental in gaining sympathy for the civil rights movement around the world.
(Washington, D.C.) About 200,000 people join the March on Washington. Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial, participants listen as Martin Luther King delivers his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.